Transmission and Distribution Losses
Mid-Term Appraisal of the Eleventh Five Year Plan had suggested measures in regard to improvement of distribution system. A copy of the relevant page taken from the website of the Planning Commission is given below:-
Mid-Term Appraisal of the Eleventh Five Year Plan
i. The distribution sector requires a robust and reliable MIS to overcome existing information and capability deficiencies. Distribution utilities that have taken proactive measures for measurability, accountability, and governance have been significantly better than others in terms of financial and operational performance.
ii. The Planning Commission will institute an independent study of the balance sheet situation of public sector discom/SBEs to ascertain their real financial situation as an input into the Twelfth Plan.
iii. The distribution sector requires substantial improvements in business planning and forecasting to manage its finances and operations better.
This would require facilitating Multi-Year-Tariff (MYT) frameworks, as mandated by the Electricity Act, 2003, in the states.
iv. The distribution sector needs to urgently enhance power procurement and portfolio optimization skills. Many of the present cost problems are on account of poor planning in power procurement and contract management.
v. The distribution sector needs to improve its network forecasting, planning, and execution skills on an accelerated pace. Networks need to be strengthened to ensure that power distribution capabilities are adequate and efficient. Studies demonstrate that the present levels of technical losses in the networks are unacceptably high in some of the large states.
vi. Customer service and management methods need to be improved substantially for greater consumer satisfaction and overall reduction in service costs. This would also facilitate implementing cost reflective tariff s and timely payments from consumers.
vii. Adequate emphasis needs to be placed on quality and monitoring of the restructured APDRP programme’s interventions and outputs.
viii. There should be greater focus on the rights of the customer. There are documented cases of distribution utilities switching off supplies to their own customers to sell power at profit in short-term power market sales. Supply obligations should be enforced and utilities should not be allowed the discretion of cutting off customers to sell in the power market.
i. Trading of power at very high rates has a distortion effect and threatens to jeopardize the financial viability of distribution companies. Urgent steps are needed to bring the practice under appropriate discipline.
ii. Open access facility to consumers is presently ineffective due to the reluctance of state utilities. The recommendations of the Open Access Task Force Committee should be implemented. In particular, Load Despatch Centres should be made independent and open access promoted by providing one-fourth of unallocated CPSUs power to incentivize states. In case of all new CPSU plants, it should be increased to 50 per cent.
iii. Differential peak power tariff rates should be notified to restrict demand at peak hours.
iv. Energy audit of power utilities using IT.
v. Free power to farmers needs metering and upfront subsidy by states. The programme for separation of feeders in rural areas as in Gujarat, Rajasthan, Haryana, and Andhra Pradesh should be implemented.
The Government has proposed to use latest technology to minimize transmission cost and losses during transmission and distribution.
The restructured APDRP scheme was approved in July, 2008, with the aim of restoring the commercial viability of the distribution sector by putting in place mechanisms that lead to a substantial reduction in aggregate AT&C losses with demonstrable performance in terms of sustained loss reduction with definite end-points and delivery time lines. Projects under the scheme are taken up in two parts. Part A focuses on establishing reliable and automated systems for sustained collection of accurate baseline data, and the adoption of IT in the areas of energy accounting and auditing and consumer base services. Part B includes regular system strengthening projects. Under R-ADPRP, projects worth Rs. 31,416.15 crores (Part-A: Rs. 6,639.98 crores covering 1402 towns and 63 SCADA projects; Part-B: Rs. 24,776.17 crores covering 1086 towns) have been sanctioned.
To minimize transmission cost, Powergrid Corporation of India Ltd. is using latest technology in Transmission. This includes use of High capacity 400kV multi-circuit/bundle conductor lines, High Surge Impedance Loading (HSIL) Line to increase the loadability of lines, ±800kV, 6000MW High Capacity HVDC system, use of Compact towers to reduce space, Use of High temperature Low Sag (HTLS) conductor line to increase current rating, use of Fixed and Thyristor Controlled Series Compensation (TCSC) to enhances power handling capability, establishment of State-of-the-art Gas Insulated Substations (GIS), which requires less space (about 80% reduction), Regulation in Power Flow/ FACTs devices, substation automation and remote operation etc.
This information was given by the Minister of State for Power Shri K.C.Venugopal in a written reply to a question in Lok Sabha today.